Stone thrown by Scotsman for European national (8)
I believe the answer is:
'european national' is the definition.
'estonian' can be an answer for 'national' (I've seen this before). I am not sure about the 'european' bit.
'stone thrown by scotsman' is the wordplay.
'thrown' indicates anagramming the letters.
'by' is a charade indicator (letters next to each other).
'scotsman' becomes 'ian' (common Scottish name).
'stone' with letters rearranged gives 'eston'.
'for' is the link.
Can you help me to learn more?
(Other definitions for estonian that I've seen before include "E. European", "Person from Tallinn, say.", "One from Tallinn", "Native of a Baltic republic", "Northern European".)